Last updated: Dec-13-2018

12/13/2018 10:09:17 PM
Show Printable Version Download Plain Text
Fund Library Q&A
Your questions about financial planning, investments, and portfolio management answered by an industry expert

By Robyn K. Thompson  | Friday, May 12, 2017

Q – I’m a novice investor, and I’ve been researching ways to set up an investment portfolio using exchange-traded funds, because of their low management fees. I’ve looked at broad stock and bond index funds as a place to start, but a friend told me I’d get more bang for my buck with a couple of “smart beta” funds added to the mix. Because I consider myself a fairly conservative investor, I think I’d need a portfolio balanced between stocks and bonds, but I’m not sure how smart beta ETFs would fit in. Do you have any suggestions? – Melanie V., Mississauga, Ontario

A – You’re on the right track when you say that a balanced mix of stock and bond ETFs would be a good place to start building a portfolio as a novice investor.

Most beginning investors test the waters with either a balanced mutual fund or with ETFs that track large, well-established stock and bond indices.

These include, for example, the S&P/TSX Composite Index for Canadian stocks, the S&P 500 Composite Index for U.S. stocks, the MSCI EAFE Index (that is, the Europe, Australasia and Far East Index) for stocks of developed countries outside North America.

For Canadian bonds, an ETF that tracks a broad index of both government and corporate issues would be one to include in a balanced portfolio. The FTSE/TMX Universe Bond Index is the broadest Canadian fixed-income index. A wide choice of investable global bond indices are also available, from index-producers such as FTSE Russell, Dow Jones, Standard & Poor’s, and MSCI (Morgan Stanley Capital International).

A balanced portfolio of ETFs could be apportioned, for example, 60% equities (divided into, say, 40% Canadian and 60% non-Canada international), and 40% Canadian bonds. You could accomplish this with the purchase of only three broad passive-index ETFs.

So-called “smart beta” ETFs are a relatively recent innovation in the ETF industry. So perhaps a little defining of terms is in order.

A broad, passive, index-tracking ETF goes back to the roots of exchange-trade funds, which were developed in the last 20 years of the twentieth century. It is simply a fund that passively tracks the performance of a large, capitalization-weighted index, such as the S&P/TSX Composite Index or the S&P 500 Composite Index.

The individual components of these indices are weighted according to the size of their market capitalization (the price of a company’s stock multiplied by the number of shares outstanding). Consequently, the larger a company’s market cap, the greater its influence in the performance of the index.

For example, tech firm Apple Inc. (NASDAQ: AAPL) recently topped US$800 billion in market capitalization, becoming the world’s most valuable company. It constitutes about 4% weighting in the S&P 500. In Canada, the S&P/TSX Composite Index, also capitalization weighted, is dominated by Canada’s big banks and insurance companies, as well as larger resource companies in the energy sector.

As the ETF market developed and matured, fund companies began offering ETFs that aimed to deliver performance better than what can be obtained simply by buying and holding a capitalization-weighted index. These came to be known as “smart beta” or “factor based” ETFs.

Smart beta funds basically incorporate, or “overlay,” various types of active strategies on an index in an effort to enhance returns. These strategies could include fundamental screens (such as various financial ratios or dividend growth), low volatility metrics (to reduce risk), high beta (for aggressive growth), commodities, options, and multi-asset tracking. Because they tend to use more sophisticated strategies, they tend to be used more by portfolio managers to augment investor portfolios in one way or another.

Most smart beta ETFs have higher MERs than standard passive index-tracking ETFs, and have come under criticism as simply a way for ETF issuers to collect higher fees.

Moreover, smart beta ETFs are still quite new to the market, and while they have been back-tested with historical data, they do not have a long-term performance history through a real-world market cycle.

For novice investors building their first portfolio, then, I’d advise sticking with tried-and-true, index-tracking ETFs. They’ll give you broad exposure to the market, they have a long history of performance through various market cycles, they have the lowest MERs, and they are highly liquid. Leave the smart-beta strategies for professional portfolio managers, or until you’re more comfortable with sophisticated strategies yourself. – Robyn

Robyn Thompson, CFP, CIM, FCSI , is the founder of Castlemark Wealth Management , a boutique financial advisory firm specializing in wealth management for high net worth individuals and families. Contact her directly by phone at 416-828-7159, or by email at for a confidential planning consultation.

Notes and Disclaimer

© 2017 by the Fund Library. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part by any means without prior written permission is prohibited.

The foregoing is for general information purposes only and is the opinion of the writer. Securities mentioned are illustrative only and carry risk of loss. No guarantee of investment performance is made or implied. It is not intended to provide specific personalized advice including, without limitation, investment, financial, legal, accounting or tax advice. Please contact the author to discuss your particular circumstances.

Find a Stock

(Leave blank for all)
Symbol   Name
Forgot your password?
Register now
Tech Support
For general inquiries, please email the Librarian.
Home |  Features |  Member Services |  Tools |  Funds |  About Us
For any questions or problems with this site, please contact the Librarian.
Page ID: 20:80:1074:00016211:9/12/2017:3:10:55 PM Duration of this visit: 0 sec.